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Technology Readiness Levels (TRL)

Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) provided by the European Commission:

  • TRL 0Idea. Unproven concept, no testing has been performed.
  • TRL 1Basic research. Principles postulated and observed but no experimental proof available.
  • TRL 2Technology formulation. Concept and application have been formulated.
  • TRL 3Applied research. First laboratory test completed; proof of concept.
  • TRL 4Small scale prototype built in a laboratory environment (“ugly” prototype).
  • TRL 5Large scale prototype tested in intended environment.
  • TRL 6Prototype system tested in intended environment close to expected performance.
  • TRL 7Demonstration system operating in operational environment at pre-commercial scale.
  • TRL 8First of a kind commercial system. Manufacturing issues solved.
  • TRL 9Full commercial application, technology available for consumers.